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Understanding the Differences Between Common Gut Issues

The digestive system is a complex network responsible for processing and absorbing nutrients, but it can be susceptible to various ailments. Gut issues can significantly impact an individual's quality of life, causing discomfort and disrupting daily activities.

In this comprehensive article, we will delve into and compare some of the most common gut complaints, focusing primarily on Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and its distinctions from other conditions such as Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD). Gaining a deeper understanding of these differences is crucial for accurate diagnosis, effective management, and improved well-being.

IBS is the most common gut complaint, so let’s start with that.

What is IBS?

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a chronic functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by recurring abdominal pain or discomfort, bloating, and changes in bowel habits. It is a common condition that affects millions of people worldwide.

Symptoms of IBS can vary but often include:

  • Abdominal pain or cramping
  • Bloating and excessive gas
  • Diarrhoea, constipation, or a combination of both
  • Changes in bowel frequency or stool consistency
  • Urgency to have a bowel movement (to do a poo)

The exact cause of IBS is not fully understood, but several factors may contribute, including:

  • Abnormal muscle contractions in the intestines
  • Hypersensitivity to pain in the gut
  • Changes in the gut microbiome
  • Psychological factors such as stress, anxiety, or depression
  • Certain foods, such as spicy or fatty foods, caffeine, or alcohol
  • Hormonal changes in women

The management of IBS focuses on symptom relief and improving overall quality of life. Treatment options may include:

  • Dietary modifications, such as following a low-FODMAP diet or identifying trigger foods
  • Stress reduction techniques, including relaxation exercises or therapy
  • Medications to alleviate specific symptoms like antispasmodics, anti-diarrheal agents, laxatives, or antidepressants
  • Regular exercise and maintaining a healthy lifestyle

Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)

Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) encompasses two main types: Crohn's disease and Ulcerative Colitis. Unlike IBS, IBD involves chronic inflammation of the digestive tract and can cause more severe complications.

Crohn's disease can affect any part of the digestive tract, from the mouth to the anus. It involves inflammation that extends through the layers of the affected area, resulting in ulcerations and damage.

Ulcerative Colitis primarily affects the colon and rectum. It involves continuous inflammation and ulceration in the innermost lining of the large intestine.

Common symptoms of IBD include:

  • Abdominal pain or cramping
  • Persistent diarrhea (often with blood)
  • Rectal bleeding
  • Fatigue and reduced energy levels
  • Weight loss and reduced appetite
  • Fever and inflammation outside the digestive tract (in some cases)

The exact cause of IBD is not fully understood, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic, environmental, and immune system factors. Potential triggers can include:

  • Genetic predisposition
  • Abnormal immune response
  • Environmental factors
  • Gut microbiome imbalances
  • Smoking (Crohn's disease)
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)

Treatment options for IBD depend on the severity and extent of the disease. They may include:

  • Medications to control inflammation and manage symptoms, such as aminosalicylates, corticosteroids, immunomodulators, or biologic therapies
  • Dietary adjustments and nutritional support
  • Lifestyle modifications, including stress management techniques and regular exercise
  • Surgery in cases of severe complications or when medication fails to control the disease.

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) occurs when stomach acid and, occasionally, bile flow back into the esophagus, causing irritation and inflammation.

Symptoms: Common symptoms of GERD include:

  • Heartburn, a burning sensation in the chest
  • Acid regurgitation or the sensation of food or liquid coming back up into the mouth
  • Difficulty swallowing or a feeling of a lump in the throat
  • Chronic cough or hoarseness
  • Sore throat or the need to clear the throat frequently

GERD can be caused by several factors, including:

  • Weakness in the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), a muscular ring that allows food to enter the stomach but should prevent acid reflux
  • Hiatal hernia, where part of the stomach pushes upward into the chest through the diaphragm
  • Obesity or being overweight
  • Pregnancy
  • Certain foods and beverages, such as citrus fruits, tomatoes, spicy foods, caffeine, alcohol, and carbonated drinks
  • Medications, including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and certain asthma medications

GERD can often be managed with a combination of lifestyle changes and medications, such as:

  • Avoiding trigger foods and eating smaller, more frequent meals
  • Elevating the head of the bed to reduce nighttime reflux
  • Weight management and regular exercise
  • Medications that reduce acid production or neutralize stomach acid, such as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), H2 blockers, or antacids
  • In some cases, surgical procedures may be considered if medications and lifestyle changes are ineffective or if complications arise

The Difference Between IBS and Other Gut Issues

To help you better understand your condition we will explain the major differences between IBS and other potentially more serious ailments. That way, you are in a better position to communicate your symptoms to a medical professional and get the right treatment.

The Difference Between IBS & IBD

  • The primary distinction between IBS and IBD lies in the presence and the extent of inflammation. IBD involves chronic inflammation of the digestive tract, while IBS does not exhibit the same level of inflammation. Inflammation can be checked by testing biomarkers in blood tests.

  • Unlike IBS, IBD can be diagnosed through various diagnostic tests, such as colonoscopy, endoscopy, or imaging studies.

  • IBD typically causes more severe symptoms, including rectal bleeding, weight loss, and complications like strictures or fistulas.


  • While both conditions can cause abdominal discomfort, IBS primarily affects the large intestine, leading to changes in bowel habits, including diarrhoea, constipation, or a combination of both.

  • GERD specifically involves the reflux of stomach acid into the esophagus, causing symptoms such as heartburn, regurgitation, and difficulty swallowing.

  • Diagnostic tests like endoscopy or pH monitoring can help differentiate between the two conditions.

Final Thoughts

Gut issues can be challenging to deal with and have a significant impact on a person's quality of life. Understanding the differences between common gut issues is essential for effective diagnosis and management. By identifying the symptoms and triggers of each condition, such as how to handle IBS flare ups, individuals can work with their healthcare provider to develop a treatment plan that suits their needs. Seeking medical guidance and support is crucial for accurate diagnosis, personalized treatment, and improved well-being.

A popular option for many is to opt for a gut health supplement. If you’re wondering how these can help, check out our breakdown of how gut health supplements work.

Here at JUVIA we want everyone to enjoy a complete and fulfilling life. Unfortunately, medical complaints can get in the way of that. We hope that this article makes you more informed so you are one step closer to receiving the professional help you deserve.

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